- in Strategy Research



The basis of civilizations in history is agriculture  by virtue of it   cities were formed , evolved and flourished ,and States are still interested in it , and working to improve seeds and preserve them.
Among states that focused on the preservation of plant seeds  is the Norway  which set up in 2008  the biggest cellar in the world , “Svalbard” in collaboration with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research  cigar , in the Norwegian Island , Spitsbergen , about 1300 km   from the North Pole, at a cost of about $ 9 million; to keep various types  of plant seeds inside a mountain of sandstone, in the gene bank  of seeds from all over the world, to secure them against loss, because of the wars and regional and global crisis and disasters or collision of planets, which  this  conservation will contribute  significantly in the rebuilding of civilizations.  Many plants that were used centuries ago by humans are used less frequently now and seed banks offer a way to preserve that historical and cultural value .A seed bank stores seeds to preserve genetic diversity, hence it is a type of genetic  bank.
In the context of preserving the genes of seeds , Iraq  had  national seed bank and keeps seeds dating back to thousands of years, and has an important role in this area , as it  founded   a giant monument  for  Studies and agricultural research, to promote the agricultural sector and  enacted a law  of  the  Ibaa Center for Agricultural Research  No. (9) for the year 1994, which it is linked to the Council of Ministers and be based in Baghdad, and enjoys legal personality and financial and administrative independence , and has a sub – centers in some of Iraq ‘s provinces, including scientific research center of animal  wealth and its goal to increase the numbers of wealth and improving quality.
The Iba  center aims to :
* promotion of agricultural scientific research in all fields and work on the transfer of research results and new technologies to the reality on the ground and follow – up and analysis of results.
* Development and introduction of plant and animal species and the propagation of its  origins .
* Propagation of  certified  and recorded seeds  and distributed to the beneficiaries.
* Implementation of any of a temporary nature of development projects.
* There are other items  of this law can be found by searching in  the Internet.


But then in 2003 ,the United States entered and  occupied Iraq and destroyed the infrastructure and  this edifice has  its share of destruction.
And among  branches of the Iba center , which its infrastructure  were devastated by the US occupation   like other Iraqi cultural facilities:
* Center ( Usol) for poultry  breeding and production  ,Samarra Branch, this was the center also offers special  and important scientific research for poultry includes chicken mothers related to poultry  production and reproduction, and the production of table eggs and hatching and increase the qualities and distribute them to the rest of the poultry farms scattered across Iraq, it is within its production of vaccines needed by the owners of poultry farms, providing guidance and sells chickens to the fields and the production of table eggs and sell it to the local market.

* Abu Ghraib Center for Agricultural Research as the best research of agriculture and provides guidance to the peasants, through field visits to farms, there is a section of the palm, as the experts then conduct experiments on genes for seedlings of rare palm trees to be planted in the whole of Iraq, and increasing the number of types of dates, and improved types of vaccines for diseases of palms and the types of trees and vegetables.


* Nibai center for breeding and fattening  calves for the purpose of providing meat to market and sell the cows and calves to the owners  of the fields of of cattle and farmers  , and  calves for  butchers .
And these centers must be returned  to the service through the popular demands, in order to promote the agricultural sector again after  the great damage caused to it  by  the establishment of   important irrigation  projects , including the project of  irrigation of the western island  , and irrigation of Samarra island because of its great benefits and do not forget that the land of Iraq was called Ard al-Sawad (the land of greenness) .


US researcher  reveal facts about   orders of Bremer to destroy the Iraqi economy  :


Dr.Dalia Wasfi researcher in the biology of Iraqi origin,  was born in 1971 in New York , the American Jewish mother and  an Iraqi Muslim father, in early 2006,  Dalia visited Iraq   for three months  and she wandered the city of  Basra , after returning  to the US , she spoke  to a gathering in Congress  at the way things went  in Iraq , the lack of security  and services and the lack of  availability  of drinking  water and the spread  of unemployment, and indicated that Iraq has become  “worse off after the invasion than we expected “, and worked in search of  war affects on  agriculture ,  economy  and the environment  and how to restructure the agricultural methods.


According to  scary facts about the most important real reasons behind the US  invasion of Iraq which  was built on the principle of  nothing is green in the green zone, if we go back a little bit  to the  history b 200-300 years BC,We will  find the Fertile Crescent area known as the cradle of civilizations (Tigris and Euphrates) and how it was turned  today into a desert.  The old of agriculture in Iraq dates back to 10,000 years  i.e  before  8000 years BC , and the development of agriculture and then  the inhabitants of Mesopotamia invented  irrigation methods ,as  with its virtue of it  had become   a surplus of agricultural crops , which led to the discovery of the clothing industry, and that the surplus  of crop production in turn led to the invention of  writing to write down and record the supplies , and buying and selling process , so the invented the  cuneiform writing immediately afterwards , and thus became the first one who invented writing, and then they invented mathematics, numbers , and the foundations of law and medicine , thus it was founded the greatest civilizations before 7000 years and before 600 BC  it was created at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar II the hanging gardens which ranked of the seven wonders, it was not built according to  a contract of  US or European company, and all those glory days were not with the help of the Americans and the British, in short , Iraq was a Garden of Eden.


In the twentieth century , Iraq was  planting crops and export them  and most notably dates noting that  in 1950 Iraq had exported 400 types of dates for the world, and the number of palm trees in Iraq was 35 million palm trees, but today it has dropped to less than 15 million palm trees , according to the Department of Defense statistics thank to the occupation , and regarding the health and education , in  the seventies despite the country ‘s  policy of  restricting the freedom  , however , it was shown  a remarkable recovery .one  Iraqi Dinar  = US $ 3 , and this is an index to the rise of  real value of currency , a free health and education, all of this evidence that the economy was in the best state  .


During the eighties ,  the Iraqi economy turned into a battlefield economy, where Iraq fought a war with the Iranian regime,  and more cities exposed to the  destruction, and the most important  is  Basra  because of its important  location and adjacent to Iran, but the water and electricity supply remained constant for civil, and according to the confidential information obtained by a researcher from the US Congress ,  American supports and finance  Iraq above the table, and also supports Iran from under the table , this is the US policy.


When the Iran – Iraq war was ended   that lasted eight years  , Iraq was in urgent  need to rebuild the country , and the payment of debts, but the price of a barrel of oil , which was down between 10 and 12 dollars, instead of $ 18 a barrel was frustrating, it was what really needs 40 billion dollars, but the low price of  oil  and the amount of  supply was large , this was one of the reasons to enter Kuwait.


After entering Kuwait on 02.08.1990 four days later , the United Nations passed Resolution 661 on  the day 6 of the same year, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions on the Iraq which  exhausted the economy.


In the Gulf War of the year 1991 , which lasted 42 days. America used the worst weapons against Iraq, it has been used more than 88,000 tons of explosives, and the destruction of water, electricity and sewage networks and communication centers in all parts of Iraq, and public health facilities , and this is against the law according to the Geneva Convention.


Iraq was the world ‘s first in  health care ,and  had a healthy tourism for people who come from abroad.


Iraq was living , during the siege ,difficult period and  the sale of oil was put under embargo  , which constitutes 95% of the Iraqi economy, and  importing goods and any agricultural equipment  necessary for the development of the agricultural sector   , or the reform of  infrastructure of the sector  were forbidden .


In the same period , it was based on the ration card , which was meeting parts of  the needs of citizens according to international standards, which such system is still working   today   in the chaos and hunger atmosphere.


, and after five years of economic blockade  in 1995 and the sanctions imposed on Iraq It shows that women and children segment are affected by the siege according to a study carried out by UNICEF, then after that   the oil – for – food program was adopted, and the program that was 100% works , but it does not meet the citizens ‘ needs in an integrated manner, and  the program is not without suspicions of corruption.


Among  sanctions imposed on Iraq  , intellectual and scientific sanctions and Technology  were imposed noting that even medical, agricultural, and scientific journals in general were forbidden  in order not to enter the modern technology to Iraq.


In 1997 , UNICEF found that there are about a million Iraqi children suffer from chronic malnutrition and the organization warned that children are paying the price of economic blockade, it was every two out of five children use  one incubator and if  disrupted , there are no alternatives.


After 2003, the matter was different as   Iraqis  were hopeful, but what happened  that   the civil governor Paul Bremer , head of the coalition authority and civil ruling , who came after the occupation, the owner of the 100  orders , and this is an important point as it is no elected government can change these orders  since the are the basis of democracy !. On the agricultural side , Iraq has the pre – 2003 central seed system , or the so – called National Bank for seeds, as it works to develop the seed industry with central control   and the well diversity of all kinds of seeds and wheat in the world, as the farmers work on  keeping  the seeds  and replanted, noting that  the national seed  bank  has owned : Which meant that he had the seeds  dated back thousands of years, ever since the era of the ancient farmers, but after 2003, and by order of the Bremer , the scientific research and development institutions  for the Iraqi seeds were  destroyed  and corrupting them fully and deliberately , now the seed supply covers only 5% of the energy of seeds during a study conducted in 2005.


And Resolution No. 81 is important , the  deliberated order to destroy agriculture in Iraq , the economy, and has a significant impact on Iraq  which is under the name of patents law  and industrial design and secrecy of information , integrated circuits and the diversity of crops, through the legal use 81 stipulated  <<  the Iraqi farmers must be prevented  from using  protected seeds  and all kinds,  and any  type  mentioned in  paragraph 1 & 2 under Article 14, as it states that the Iraqi farmers are not allowed to  preserve  seeds, and they  are not allowed to share it with others, and they are not eligible for re – planting the  harvested seeds .


The researcher  Wasfi  referred  to Monsanto company : It is a multinational company engaged in agricultural biotechnology and the largest producer of seeds (regular and genetically modified), the undisputed that  holds 70-100% of the markets of  various crop seeds in the world.


The company uses these seeds to one harvest season   making farmers relied on it to provide grain each year  because it was  genetically modified, and can not be re – planting its seeds again.


So here lies the interest of companies such as Du, it is a multinational American chemical company, and  Cargill grain company  noting that their interest here because they work to re made  the  seeds  and possess the seed, the only companies that possess  manufactured chemicals for  seeds.


And these companies are in real need of a laboratory or field testing, in the company of clumps of grain , there was an agricultural adviser who was appointed in 2003, and a former official at the US FDA, is surprising and knew the overseas companies  that operate in all fields such as agriculture, oil and mercenary wars, these are  the benefits  of wars.


the desire of those companies to use their domesticated seeds in Iraq exclusively, here Iraq becomes a laboratory and field tests of genetically modified seed.


Other important point they just gave to farmers six varieties of wheat, three of them just  are  fit  for the product of pasta, and  Iraq is known not eat pasta,  this is in  case of planting  it  originally , so  half  of    planting will be  for export, then who is the beneficiary   and who  will get the profits.


Food security in Iraq arrived  the state of  failure,  chaos plaguing Iraq , deliberate destruction of agriculture , no electricity no irrigation , water systems lacked maintenance, making  water contaminated with sewage water, Iraq will face a new wave of drought  in marshes, and will increase the food crisis in Iraq.
The effect of  depleted uranium , which was used against Iraq during the Gulf War , as used about 300 tons, which is a radioactive waste DU more intensity on the face of the earth, and that its effect   in the air layers such as spray tray spread with air, soil and water  used or  breath by human being , when entering the human body , it stays in the lungs and kidneys and  its  small  parts move into the bloodstream regularly.
Which led to the spread of cancer diseases in Iraq, and in a study conducted in 2002 at the College of Veterinary Medicine in Basra have discovered the existence of buffalo cancer, and ovarian adenocarcinoma tumor that affects dogs. And it affects the human beings , too.

Other studies  have proven that 600% of infant mortality rates have increased and 300%  of  blood cancers  in children and cancer of the lymph gland  were increased .
Decisions (orders) of  Bremer that damaged  Iraq ‘s economy  in addition to previous resolutions No. 81:
Resolution No. 39 allows for the following:
* the privatization of 200  of  companies  owned by Iraqi state  of foreign ownership of100% of Iraqi firms, national treatment for foreign companies, transfer of profits and other  funds  exempt  from taxes and restrictions, property licenses for 40 years,
to explain the law   above: to allow US companies operating in Iraq to own every business and work   on it , and send all the money to the United States without having to invest the money locally to  the service  of the Iraqi economy, there is no need to contract with an Iraqi hands, there is no need   to ensure public services  and  too easy to ignore the rights of workers, and companies can withdraw their investment at any time  they wish.
Resolution No. 40: Transforming the banking sector in the State Administration to market system driven overnight by allowing foreign banks to enter the Iraqi market and to buy up to 50% of the Iraqi banking .
Resolution No. 12 issued in 2003 and renovated in 2004 that suspension of all customs duties and taxes on imports and additional license fees for goods that enter or leave Iraq, and all other trade restrictions that apply to such goods.
Explanation of the above law: it leads to an immediate and dramatic inflow of cheap consumer products and that the elimination of the national industry and the local distributors for the same products, which affects the gross domestic product in the long run as well.
Resolution No. 17: grants foreign contractors , including private security firms, full immunity from Iraqi laws.
Explanation of the above law: If it caused damage to a third party by killing someone or causing environmental damage, such as throwing chemicals toxic, or water intoxication, the injured party can not resort to the Iraqi legal system, as it must submit charges to the US courts under the auspices of the United States laws.
Resolution No. 77: Create  Fedral Board of Supreme Adit and the appointment  of their boss , and his two deputies, the Council supervises on  the inspectors in each ministry with broad authority to review government contracts and programs  of confidential  auditing and describe systems and procedures.
Resolution No. 57:  an inspector  was appointed within each Iraqi Ministry for this purpose to perform the process of  audit and writing   and policies and  he has the  right to access to all offices, materials and workers in the ministries.


30 Law on financial management and prevent the export.
Iraqi specialists  stressed that decisions of  Paul Bremer , head of the CPA , civil and former governor of Iraq, prevented Iraq from exporting many industrial products and raw materials, wondering  for the rise of  criticism of the Iraqi economy being one – sided economy , while   specialists  attributed to not to cancel these  “unfair” decisions , Until now, as  a lot of politicians were turned to dealers.
Industrial expert Majid Hameed said that “industrialists insist on the abolition of Bremer ‘s decision No. 30 on financial management , ” noting that ” the Council is working on it for more than two years, but came to a standstill with the government.”


He explained , “Bremer decisions restricted the private sector and he prevented it from exporting its products and raw materials,” the surprising “not to cancel these decisions , despite what the damage caused to the Iraqi economy.” Stressing that “many experts and economists recommended that ten years ago the need to cancel the unfair decisions of  CPA  to Iraqi industry .”
He pointed out that those “recommendations fell on deaf ears by lawmakers as a result of lack of understanding of the exact meaning of the industry and the transformation of many politicians to traders profaned the Iraqi market.”
Stressing that ” the abolition of those decisions need to enact a law by the House of Representatives for re – regulating exports and imports according to modern foundations  to encourage economic activity and export hubs.”


In a report published by the British charity Oxfam said the US occupation policy after 2003 were behind the spread of financial and administrative corruption as it is now, especially since some of the symbols of this occupation were involved in these operations of corruption, such as the US military commanders in the US army , and some foreign advisers who worked in the  Iraqi ministries .


The report said the occupation of Iraq and the sabotage of infrastructure helped the widespread problem of corruption larger than it was in the early nineties of the last century, after the imposition of the economic embargo on Iraq, which led to the emergence of the early financial and administrative corruption in the country, saying that there was misappropriation of funds by 8.8 billion dollars , during the coalition Provisional authority headed by the civil governor of Iraq, Paul Bremer, which encouraged and open the door to corrupt, whether they are Iraqis or foreign contractors with the United States, confirming that the  coalition  authority  is responsible for a large part of the financial and administrative corruption that took place in the country over the past years, the  .


As well as  here Economic Adviser to the Prime Minister, the Mudher Mohammed Saleh, said that “the decision of the United Alliance, issued in 2003 to Prevent the export of Iraqi goods not only agricultural, outside the country’s authority is still valid,” adding that “the decision to prevent Iraq from exporting dozens of its  productive goods as a result of concerns no longer exist today. ”


Saleh added that “several Gulf countries asked to import gravel and cement from Iraq, but Bremer’s decision to prevent that,” noting that the “the export of such material can help in the face of the current economic crisis.” That’s what wrong with our economy being one-sided and suppress non-oil exports.


Economic Adviser to the Prime Minister demanded from the relevant ministries, such as trade, industry  to  the need to “raise the issue and push for the abolition of Bremer’s decision,” stressing that “the abolition of those decisions need to enact a law by the House of Representatives for re-regulating exports and imports according to modern foundations to encourage economic activity and axes  of export “.


For his part, Minister of Industry and Minerals, Mohammad Darraji, said that “hidden bodies works to keep the decisions of Bremer and prevent Iraq from exporting to eliminate the Iraqi industry,” noting that he  “called on the House of Representatives to review the decisions of Bremer, also called on the Cabinet to prepare a draft law to eliminate the economic decisions of the authority of the coalition. ”
al – Darraji accused  Bremer as ” he intended to hit the industry and turn Iraq into a market for the products of other countries,” adding that “Iraq ‘s production of cement for the past year 2015  reached 20 million tons , while the country ‘s need 17 million only, and it is possible to export the surplus , but Bremer ‘s decision hindered that”.
Today, and   firmly  the economic and political makers must  stand united as one  to abolish the unfair decisions of Bremer against the Iraqi people and to stop the farce of subservience and submission to the decisions the  do not serve the national interest.


Shatha Khalil


Unit Economic Studies


Translated by : Mudhaffar al-Kusairi


Rawabet Research and Strategic Studies Center

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